Mittwoch, 27. Februar 2013

Die liebevolle Zuwendung nützt uns selbst




Im kurzen Sūtra über die liebevolle Zuwendung betont Gautama Buddha, dass die liebevolle Zuwendung dem Menschen selbst nützt und dass er darüber Klarheit haben sollte. Dieses in Gedichtform verfasste Sūtra endet mit den folgenden Versen:

„Ohne sich einer (fixierten) Ansicht hinzugeben,
voller Ethik und der Fähigkeit zu sehen,
hat er die Gier nach Sinnlichkeit überwunden.“

Buddha beschreibt detailliert die Entfaltung der liebevollen Zuwendung und weist darauf hin, dass dazu Achtsamkeit, Willenskraft, Freude, innere Stille und Gleichmut gehören. Und dass die liebevolle Zuwendung

„auf Abgeschiedenheit gestützt, auf Gierlosigkeit gestützt, auf Erlöschung gestützt, auf das Loslassen hingewendet (ist).“

Eine recht umfassende Darstellung der Himmlischen Verweilungen bietet zudem die Schrift über den Weg der Reinheit.
Die Empfehlung lautet eindeutig, die Übungen zur Entfaltung der Himmlischen Verweilungen mit einem geschätzten, verehrten, lebenden Menschen zu beginnen, zum Beispiel einem Lehrer oder älteren Freund. Wenn das vollständig gelingt, soll man zu einem Menschen, der einem gleichgültig ist, weiterschreiten und dann sogar zu einem Feind.

Wichtig ist bei diesen Lernschritten, sich selbst genau zu beobachten, weil sonst keine klare Rückmeldung über den psychischen und spirituellen Zustand möglich ist. Wenn sich dabei zeigt, dass gegen einen Feind erneut Hass-Gedanken und Groll aufsteigen, soll man mit der Schrittfolge wieder bei einem geschätzten und verehrten Menschen beginnen und dann wie bereits geschildert fortfahren.
Ein drastisches Gleichnis beschreibt das völlig sinnlose Verhalten, Hass mit Gegenhass zu beantworten:

„Genau wie ein Mann, der mit beiden Händen glühende Kohlen oder Kot ergreift, um einen anderen (den Feind) damit zu bewerfen, so verbrennst (auch) du dich selbst zuerst und verbreitest über dich einen üblen Geruch.“

Dieses Gleichnis erläutert das Herzstück der Himmlischen Verweilungen: den Umgang gerade mit schwierigen Menschen, die versuchen, uns zu erniedrigen, zu verletzten oder uns Schaden zuzufügen. Sicher bedeutet das nicht, dass wir mit verklärten Augen leugnen sollen, dass es böse Motive und Taten gibt, die für uns sehr gefährlich werden können. Aber Gefahren, die von einem hassenden Menschen ausgehen, pragmatisch abzuwehren, ist etwas anderes, als ihn ebenfalls zu hassen.

Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen:
Bei der liebevollen Zuwendung geht es um das Wohlwollen und um Offenheit anderen Menschen gegenüber, es geht um Wohltaten und darum, sich selbst und auch anderen dabei zu helfen, Groll, Übelwollen und Abwertung zu überwinden.

Das Mitgefühl bezieht sich hauptsächlich auf das Leiden anderer Menschen, das dadurch gemildert oder sogar aufgehoben wird. Im alten Indien gab es viel körperliches Elend und furchtbare, unheilbare Krankheiten, deshalb war das Mitgefühl mit leidenden Menschen und Tieren von großer Bedeutung. Ein berühmtes Vorbild in diesem Zusammenhang ist der historische indische König Ashoka, der sich von einem rücksichtslosen, grausamen Eroberer zu einem wahren Buddhisten wandelte.

Bei der Mitfreude ist wichtig, dass sie frei von Neid ist, dass man dabei keine innere Unlust empfindet und sich an der Freude und am Erfolg anderer wirklich und mit ganzem Herzen freuen kann. Das ist in unserer auf Wettbewerb getrimmten westlichen Gesellschaft nicht immer einfach!

Das Wesen des Gleichmuts kommt im folgenden Zitat sehr gut zum Ausdruck:
„Das Merkmal des Gleichmuts besteht im Bewahren der Mitte, sein Wesen im Erkennen der Gleichheit der Lebewesen, seine Äußerung in Stillung von Abneigung und Zuneigung, seine Grundlage im Erkennen der Karma-Eigenschaft der Wesen.“

Diese Übersetzung stammt von Nyanatiloka und mag etwas altertümlich und vielleicht auch merkwürdig klingen, ist aber doch recht aussagekräftig.

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